Three types of cognitive items are scored for NAEP. Multiple-choice item responses are captured by high-speed scanners during student booklet processing. Short constructed-response items (typically those with two or three valid score points) and extended constructed-response items (typically those with four or more valid score points) are scored by trained personnel using images of student responses also captured during processing.
Scoring a large number of short and extended constructed responses with a high level of accuracy and reliability within a limited time frame is essential to the success of NAEP. To ensure reliable, efficient scoring, NAEP takes the following steps: